By W. Baldar. Greenleaf University.
They occur most commonly on the pads of the fingers and toes cheap levitra professional 20mg without a prescription, are transient cheap 20 mg levitra professional with mastercard, and resolve without the development of necrosis. Janeway lesions are small, painless, erythematous macules that are found on the palms and soles. Figure 4 Cutaneous lesions on the left ankle and calf of a patient with disseminated Neisseria gonorrheae infection. Most patients will present with fever, rash, polyarthritis, and tenosynovitis (47). The rash usually begins on the first day of symptoms and becomes more prominent with the onset of each new febrile episode (50). The lesions begin as tiny red papules or petechiae (1–5 mm in diameter) that evolve to a vesicular and then pustular form (Fig. The pustular lesions develop a gray, necrotic center with a hemorrhagic base (47,50). Early in the infection, blood cultures may be positive; later, synovial joint fluid from associated effusions may yield positive cultures. Capnocytophaga Infection Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fastidious gram-negative bacillus that is part of the normal gingival flora of dogs and cats (51,52). Human infections are associated with dog or cat bites, cat scratches, and contact with wild animals (51,52). Predisposing factors include trauma, alcohol abuse, steroid therapy, chronic lung disease, and asplenia (51,52). Skin lesions occur in 50% of infected patients, often progressing from petechiae to purpura to cutaneous gangrene (53). Other dermatologic lesions include macules, papules, painful erythema, or eschars. Clinical clues include a compatible clinical syndrome and a history of a dog- or cat- inflicted wound. Diagnosis depends on the culture of the bacteria from blood, tissues, or other body fluids. Unfortunately, the diagnosis is missed in greater than 70% of cases because of lack Fever and Rash in Critical Care 29 of familiarity with the bacteria and its microbiological growth characteristics (54). Dengue viruses are transmitted from person to person through infected female Aedes mosquitoes. The mosquito acquires the virus by taking a blood meal from an infected human or monkey. The virus incubates in the mosquito for 7 to 10 days before it can transmit the infection. The year 2007 was the worst on record since 1985 with almost 1 million cases of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever reported in the United States (58). The resurgence of dengue has been attributed to multiple factors including global population growth, urbanization, deforestation, poor housing and waste management systems, deteriorating mosquito control, virus evolution, and climate change (56). Dengue fever (also known as “breakbone fever” or “dandy fever”) is a short-duration, nonfatal disease characterized by the sudden onset of headache, retro-orbital pain, high fever, joint pain, and rash (57,59). The initial rash of dengue occurs within the first 24 to 48 hours of symptom onset and involves flushing of the face, neck, and chest (60). A subsequent rash, three to five days later, manifests as a generalized morbilliform eruption, palpable pinpoint petechiae, and islands of sparing that begin centrally and spread peripherally (1,60). Recovery from infection provides lifelong immunity to that serotype, but does not preclude patients from being infected with the other serotypes of dengue virus, i. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is characterized by hemorrhage, thrombocytopenia, and plasma leakage. Dengue shock syndrome includes the additional complications of circulatory failure and hypotension (57,59). If a patient presents greater than two weeks after visiting an endemic area, dengue is much less likely (61). Laboratory abnormalities include neutropenia followed by lymphocytosis, hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, and an elevated aspartate aminotransferase in the serum (62). Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, a microbe that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes. Lyme disease is endemic in the northeastern, mid-Atlantic, north, central, and far western regions of the United States. The disease has a bimodal age distribution, with peaks in patients younger than 15 and older than 29 years of age (67). Lyme disease has three stages: early localized, early disseminated, and late disease. Erythema migrans occurs in 60% to 80% of the cases and begins as a small red papule at the site of the bite. Other symptoms associated with early localized disease include fatigue, myalgias, arthralgias, headache, fever, and chills.
Medical procedures contribute the highest exposure of all man-made ra- diation sources order levitra professional 20mg otc. The most exposure comes from diagnostic radiographic procedures with about 39mrem (390mSv) annually compared to 14mrem (140mSv) for nuclear medicine procedures cheap levitra professional 20mg overnight delivery. Consumer products such as tobacco, water supply, building materials, agricultural products, and television receivers contribute to radiation expo- Table 16. Sources Average annual effective dose equivalent in mrem (mSv) Natural sources Radon 200 (2. The total exposure from consumer products varies between 5 and 13mrem (50 and 130mSv)/year. Occupational exposure is received by the workers in reactor plants, coal mines, and other industries using radionuclides. Nuclear power plants around the country release small amounts of radionuclides to the environment, which cause radiation exposure to the population. Such general licenses are given to physicians, veterinarians, clin- ical laboratories, and hospitals only for in vitro tests, not for the use of by-product material in humans or animals. The amount of 14C and 3H can be obtained in units of 10mCi (370kBq) and 20mCi (740kBq), respectively. The former types of speciﬁc licenses are typically given to commercial manufacturers. In the Type A license, a radiation safety committee and a radiation safety ofﬁcer are required to implement and monitor all aspects of radiation safety in the use and disposal of by-product material. Such licenses are mainly offered to large medical institutions with previous experience that are engaged in medical research, and in diagnostic and therapeutic uses of by- product material. Individual users are authorized by the radiation safety committee to conduct speciﬁc protocols using by-product materials. The Type B speciﬁc license requires a radiation safety ofﬁcer, but no radi- ation safety committee, to implement and monitor all radiation safety reg- ulations. Deep-dose equivalent (Hd), which applies to the external whole-body expo- sure, is the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 1cm (1000mg/cm2). Shallow-dose equivalent (Hs), which applies to the external exposure of the skin or an extremity, is the dose equivalent at a tissue depth of 0. Restricted area is an area where an individual could receive in excess of 5mrem (0. High-radiation area is an area where an individual could receive from a radiation source a dose equivalent in excess of 100mrem (1mSv) in 1hr at 30cm from the source. Very high-radiation area is an area where an individual could receive from radiation sources an absorbed dose in excess of 500 rad (5Gy) in 1hr at 1m from the source. Unrestricted area is an area in which an individual could receive from an external source a dose of 2mrem (20mSv)/hr and 50mrem (0. These signs use magenta, purple, or black color on yellow background; some typical signs are shown in Figure 16. These labels must be removed or defaced before disposal of the container in the unre- stricted areas. Caution signs are not required in rooms storing the sealed sources, pro- vided the radiation exposure at 1 foot (30cm) from the surface of the source reads less than 5mrem (50mSv)/hr. The annual limit of the occupational dose to the skin and other extrem- ities is the shallow-dose equivalent of 50rem (0. Depending on the license conditions, both internal and external doses have to be summed to comply with the limits. A licensee may authorize under planned special procedures an adult worker to receive additional dose in excess of the prescribed annual limits, provided no alternative procedure is available. The total dose from all planned procedures plus all doses in excess of the limits must not exceed the dose limit (5rem or 50mSv) in a given year, nor must it exceed ﬁve times the annual dose limits in the indi- vidual’s lifetime. Radiation Regulations and Protection The annual occupational dose limits for minors is 10% of the annual dose limits for adults. The dose limit to the fetus/embryo during the entire preg- nancy (gestation period) due to occupational exposure of a declared preg- nant woman is 0. Under this concept, techniques, equipment, and procedures are all critically evaluated. Principles of Radiation Protection Of the various types of radiation, the a-particle is most damaging because of its charge and great mass, followed in order by the b-particle and the g- ray. Heavier particles have shorter ranges and therefore deposit more energy per unit path length in the absorber, causing more damage. On the other hand, g-rays and x-rays have no charge or mass and therefore have a longer range in matter and cause relatively less damage in tissue. Knowl- edge of the type and energy of radiations is essential in understanding the principles of radiation protection.
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