By Q. Jensgar. Clayton College of Natural Health.

The Unproven Uses: Used as a bitter and stomachic to stimulate annual shoots reach a height of 6 m (12 m when cultivated) order flonase 50 mcg amex. The leaves are In folk medicine cheap 50mcg flonase with mastercard, Hops has been used internally for nerve 3 to 5 Iobed, serrate and opposite. After the harvest, the No health hazards or side effects are known in conjunction hops are dried on racks at temperatures of 30 to 60° C. Tannins: oligomeric proanthocyanidines Daily Dosage: For most indications, a single dose of 0. Arch 30 to 60 minutes (acute) or 1 to 3 times daily (chronic); Pharmaz 315:132-137. Determination of essential oils in hops by Madaus G, Lehrbuch der Biologischen Arzneimittel, Bde 1-3. Hansel R, Pflanzliche Beruhigungsmittel Moglichkeiten und Stuttgart 1997 Grenzen der Selbstmedikation. Flower and Fruit: The small, white 5 to 7 mm long, labiate Tobe H, Muraki Y, Kitamura K, Komiyama O, Sato Y, globular flowers are sessile. In: Biosc Biotech calyx is tubular, white and tomentose with 10 awl-shaped Biochem 61(1):158-159. The stems are erect, branched, obtusely quadrangular, and about 40 to 60 cm high and 7 mm thick at the base. The leaves are tomen- General: No health hazards or side effects are known in tose-downy, petiolate, orbicular and unevenly crenate. They conjunction with the proper administration of designated have distinct veins on the underside and are wrinkled. Characteristics: The leaves smell tangy when rubbed and Pregnancy: Not to be used during pregnancy. It has become established in central Europe; plant juice and other galenic preparations for internal use. Preparation: To prepare an infusion, pour boiling water over Production: Horehound herb consists of the fresh or dried, 1 to 2 gm of the drug; strain after 10 minutes. For a liquid above-ground parts of Marrubium vulgare as well as their extract, prepare as a (1:1) dilution with ethanol (20%). In (Drogen), Springer Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1992- folk medicine, it is used internally for acute and chronic 1994. Habitat: Although the herb is indigenous to the mountains of Madaus G, Lehrbuch der Biologischen Arzneimittel, Bde 1-3, Greece, Bulgaria, the Caucasus, northern Iran and the Nachdruck, Georg Olms Verlag Hildesheim 1979. Himalayas, it is cultivated elsewhere, especially in northern Roth L, Daunderer M, Kormann K, Giftpflanzen, Pflanzengifte, Europe including the British Isles, Denmark, Scandinavia 4. Not to be Confused With: The leaves of the Horse Chestnut are commonly confused with those of Sweet Chestnut. Most of the improvement of venous tone are hydroxycoumarins (aesculin flowers are male, but a few are female or androgynous. The and fraxin), triterpene saponins in the petioles and leaf veins, calyx is fused and bell-shaped with 5 irregular tips. Although the drug is petals are 10 to 15 mm long with a yellow spot, which turns said to have an anti-exudative effect and improve venous red. There are 3 upward petals and 2 downward, which are tone, there is a lack of clinical data to support the efficacy. The known as aescin (also escin) consists of diacylated tetra-and ovary is 3-valved, superior and velvety. Aglycones, protoes- which are shiny brown with a yellowish gray-brown navel cigenin and barringtogenol C, are bonded like esters onto the and a tough shell. The young twigs are yellowish to remain in equilibrium though migration of the acetyl red-brown and are initially covered with brown hairs. The edema reduction effect and Oligomeric proanthocyanidins, condensed tannins: (only in reduction of leg volume with edema provocation of the the seed-coat) Horse Chestnut seed extract were both statistically signifi- Fatty oil (2-3%) cant (Diem, 1992). In folk medicine, the leaves are used as ability which result in an antiedemic effect. Significant improvement in the symptoms of chronic venous insufficien- • Venous conditions (chronic venous insufficiency) cy was demonstrated in diverse, randomized, double-blind and cross-over studies (Calabrese, 1993; Steiner, 1990). Treatment of symptoms found in pathological conditions of the veins of the legs (chronic venous insufficiency), for There are indications that Horse Chestnut seed extract example pain and a sensation of heaviness in the legs, reduces the activity of lysosomal enzymes, which increases nocturnal cramps in the calves, pruritis and swelling of the in chronic pathological conditions of the veins. The activity of the enzymes is reduced by of post-traumatic and post-operative soft tissue swelling. The transcapillary filtration of low-molecular pain syndrome of the spine, edema, rheumatic disease and proteins, electrolytes and water into the interstitium is varicose veins. Homeopathic Uses: Homeopathic treatments include hemor- rhoids, lumbar and low back pain, venous back pressure.

The The drug and pure glycosides order flonase 50 mcg visa, among others order flonase 50mcg, should not be flowers, which often number 100, are arranged in richly administered in the presence of second or third degree flowered, dense racemes up to 60 cm long. The bracts are atrioventricular block, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, hyper- membranous and pointed. They are shorter than the pedicles trophic cardiomyopathy, carotid sinus syndrome, ventricular and drop early. The capsule is ovate to General: No health hazards are known in conjunction with oblong, 3-valved, obtuse or almost pointed. Side effects include tonus elevation of The bulbs are pear-shaped, about 15 to 30 cm in diameter. Contact with the juice of the fresh bulb can lead to skin Characteristics: The taste is bitter and acrid. The administration of pure glycoside is preferable due to the difficulties of standardizing Habitat: Indigenous to the Mediterranean and is cultivated the drug (proscillaridin A). Production: Squill consists of the sliced, dried, fleshy middle Drug Interactions: Increase of effectiveness and thus also of scales of the onion of the white variety of Urginea maritima, side effects is possible with concomitant administration of harvested during the flowering season. It is collected mostly quinidine, calcium, saluretics, laxatives and extended therapy from uncultivated regions. Other Names: Scilla Squill potentiates the positive inotropic and negative chrono- tropic effects of digoxin. Treatment of poisoning includes gastric lavage and instilla- tion of activated charcoal. Mode of Administration: Comminuted drug and other galenic Sato, Muro T, Antiviral activity of scillarenin, a plant preparations for internal use. Spies T, Praznik W, Hofinger A, Altmann F, Nitsch E, Wutka R The structure of the fructan sinistrin from Urginea maritima. Krenn L, Ferth R, Robien W, Kopp B, Bufadienolide aus Tuncok Y, Kozan O, Cavdar C, Guven H, Fowler J Estimation Urginea-maritima-sensu-strictu. Tuncok Y, Kozan O, Cavdar C, Guven H, Fowler J Preparation Loew D, Phytotherapie bei Herzinsuffizienz. Characteristics: The flowers release an odorless red juice Tuncok Y, Kozan O, Cavdar C, Guven H, Fowler J Urginea when squeezed, which tastes weakly bitter and irritating. Habitat: The plant is indigenous to all of Europe, western Wagner H, Wiesenauer M. Fischer-Verlag, Stuttgart, Jena, New Asia, Australia and New Zealand, and it is cultivated in York 1995. J Ethnopharmacol, 111:323- ground parts of Hypericum perforatum gathered during 35, Dec, 1980. Hypericum hirsutum, Hypericum maculatum, Hypericum montanum and Hypericum tetrapterum. Cajfeic acid derivatives: including chlorogenic acid The ovary has a broad or narrow oval shape. The seeds are 1 The main active principles of the herb are the flavone and to 3 mm long, either black or dark brown, and covered in flavonol derivatives, xanthones and naphthodianthrone (hy- small warts. A mild antidepressant, sedative and anxiolytic action of the herb and its preparations has been documented Leaves, Stem and Root: The perennial plant is 30 to 60 cm in clinical studies. The analysis demonstrated comparable results be- dopamine with similar affinities, which leads to a significant tween the treatment groups, with fewer and milder side down-regulation of cortical beta- adrenoceptors and seroto- effects in the Hypericum group (Vorbach, 1994). The antidepressive Approved by Commission E: "- action not only results from the effect on adrenergic transmitter systems (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin), • Anxiety but also from an endocrine effect (melatonin). Antiviral • Wounds and burns (retroviruses) properties of the herb have not been proven. Internally, the drug is used for psychovegetative distur- No antiretroviral activity determined by virologic markers bances, depressive moods, anxiety and nervous unrest. Hyperforin inhibited the growth of gram Unproven uses: The herb has been used for worm infesta- positive bacteria, such as Streptococcus pyogenes and tion, bronchitis and asthma, gallbladder disease, gastritis Streptococcus agalactiae. Hyperforin also demonstrated (also diarrhea), nocturnal enuresis, gout and rheumatism. These data indicate the possible use of the herb for local treatment of infected wounds and eczematous skin Chinese Medicine: In a gargle solution, the herb is used lesions (Schempp, 1999). A daily dose of 800 mg Patients with a previous history of photosensitization to St. Pruritus was found in 2% of tiredness was reported in 5% of subjects, and restlessness in patients taking Hypericum for depression (Wheatley, 1998). Three such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine or percent of patients in one study developed dry mouth and 5% citalopram, may lead to an increased effect and possible had gastrointestinal complaints Vorbach, 1997). A case report suggests that co- Dertnatologic Effects: Photosensitization has been observed administration of St.

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