By P. Mufassa. Saint Vincent College.
It can result in medical and psychosocial complications of disease safe 0.5mg dostinex, reduced quality of life of patients buy cheap dostinex 0.25 mg on line, and wasted health care resources. Poor adherence can fall into one of the following patterns where the patient: » Takes the medication very rarely (once a week or once a month); » Alternates between long periods of taking and not taking their medication e. Although there is no gold standard, the current consensus is that a multi method approach that includes self report be adopted such as that below. Attitudes and beliefs » The condition is misunderstood or » Remind patients that they denied. Social and economic » May lack support at home or in the » Encourage participation in community treatment support programs. Healthcare team related » Little or no time during the visit to » Encourage patient to ask provide information. Treatment related » Complex medication regimens » If possible reduce treatment (multiple medications and doses) complexity can be hard to follow. Although many of these recommendations require longer consultation time, this investment is rewarded many times over during the subsequent years of management. For a patient to consistently adhere to long term pharmacotherapy requires integration of the regimen into his or her daily life style. The successful integration of the regimen is informed by the extent to which the regimen differs from his or her established daily routine. Where the pharmacological proprieties of the medication permits it, the pharmacotherapy dosing regimen should be adapted to the patient’s daily routine. For example, a shift worker may need to take a sedating medicine in the morning when working night shifts, and at night, xxiv when working day shifts. If the intrusion into life style is too great alternative agents should be considered if they are available. This would include situations such as a lunchtime dose in a school-going child who remains at school for extramural activity and is unlikely to adhere to a three times a regimen but may very well succeed with a twice daily regimen. Towards concordance when prescribing Establish the patient’s » occupation » daily routine » recreational activities; » past experiences with other medicines » expectations of therapeutic outcome Balance these against the therapeutic alternatives identified based on clinical findings. Any clashes between the established routine and life style with the chosen therapy should be discussed with the patient in such a manner that the patient will be motivated to a change their lifestyle. Note: Education that focuses on these identified problems is more likely to be successful than a generic approach toward the condition/medicine. Education points to consider » Focus on the positive aspects of therapy whilst being encouraging regarding the impact of the negative aspects and offer support to deal with them if they occur. Note Some patient’s lifestyles make certain adverse responses acceptable which others may find intolerable. Sedation is unlikely to be acceptable to a student but an older patient with insomnia may welcome this side effect. However once the interval is decreased to 3 times a day there is a sharp drop in adherence with poor adherence to 4 times a day regimens. Patients with disease limited to the rectum do not require surveillance colonoscopy. Loperamide should not be used during the acute flare due to the risk of toxic megacolon. Failure to respond to 10 days of intravenous corticosteroids is an indication for an emergency colectomy. Local disease: proctosigmoiditis Patients with limited disease rarely require inpatient treatment. Patients with recurrent severe attacks to maintain remission: • Azathioprine, oral, 2 mg/kg daily. This is a medical emergency and if the colonic dilation does not resolve within 24 hours an emergency colectomy is indicated, as the risk of perforation is high. This is a transmural inflammatory condition affecting mainly the distal ileum or colon, but may affect the entire gastro-intestinal tract. After terminal ileal resections, to reduce diarrhoea due to bile salt malabsorption: • Cholestyramine, oral, 2–8 g daily. Emergency management at specialist facility will include: » resuscitation with parenteral fluids; » blood transfusions; » corticosteroids; » antibiotics; and » nasogastric suction as indicated. Peri-anal disease There is evidence of recurrence on withdrawal of therapy and prolonged treatment may be indicated. There is a decreased frequency of bowel action and patients should be assessed individually. Constipation may have many causes: » incorrect diet (fibre and fluid); » certain drugs; » lack of exercise; » metabolic; » pregnancy; » endocrine; » old age; » neurogenic; » psychogenic disorders; » lower bowel abnormalities; » chronic use of enemas and » ignoring the urge; laxatives; » cancer of the bowel; » behavioural problems in children. Stimulant laxatives For short term use only, except in the elderly where long-term treatment may be indicated: • Sennosides A and B, oral, 7. Polyethylene glycol-based purges For acute bowel preparation or for chronic constipation on specialist advice. Complications that may develop in severe disease are strictures, ulceration, Barrett’s oesophagus and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. Recurrence of symptoms After endoscopic confirmation of disease: • Omeprazole, oral, 20 mg daily.
Fluorescence in-situ hybridization techniques revealed a high frequency of dicentrics and stable trans- locations in amsacrine-treated human peripheral blood lymphocytes buy dostinex 0.5 mg overnight delivery. Additionally buy generic dostinex 0.5 mg line, amsacrine induced micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in the bone marrow of non-tumour-bearing male and female mice. In male ddY mice, amsacrine increased the incidence of micro- nuclei in both hepatocytes and peripheral blood reticulocytes. In one study, amsacrine caused chromosomal aberrations, but no sister chromatid exchange in blood lym- phocytes of patients treated with this drug by intravenous infusion. Amsacrine induced sister chromatid exchange in Chinese hamster cells and in human lymphocytes in vitro. It had no effect in Droso- phila melanogaster in the wing spot test or in the white–ivory assay, which provide a measure of somatic crossing-over or recombination. Although there is evidence that amsacrine causes point mutations in bacteria, it does not appear to do so in mammalian cells, possibly because the concentrations necessary to evoke these events would be lethal to mammalian cells. In two of three studies, it induced primarily small colony mutants at the Tk locus in mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells; although these events were classified as gene mutations (Jackson et al. Mutations at the Hprt locus in V79 cells paralleled chromosomal events as measured by micronucleus formation (Wilson et al. Neither frameshift nor base pair-substitution mutational events could be unequivocally associated with this treatment. The extent of amsacrine-induced mutation varies among cell lines, depending on their susceptibility to apoptosis, or programmed cell death, which is a means of ensuring that genetically damaged cells do not survive to form progeny and acts as an alternative pathway to mutagenesis. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization techniques revealed that amsacrine caused both aneuploidy and polyploidy in a Chinese hamster–human cell hybrid. Polyploidy was also demonstrated by cytogenetic techniques in Chinese hamster ovary cells and, by flow cytometry, in murine erythroleukaemic cells. Amsacrine also mutates germ cells: dominant lethal events were seen in female but not in male mice. Treatment of meiotic cells with amsacrine can disrupt the structure of the synaptonemal complex, a meiosis-specific structure that is essential for accurate recombination and chromosomal segregation. For example, exposure of preleptotene mouse germ cells to amsacrine led to an aberrant multi-axial configuration of the synaptonemal complex (Ferguson et al. This provides indirect evidence that amsacrine interferes with meiotic recombination and is a probable aneuploidogen in meiotic cells. Three mechanisms have been identified to explain the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of amsacrine. Most of the muta- tional events reported in mammalian cells, including point mutations, chromosomal deletions and exchanges and aneuploidy, can be explained by this activity. Amsacrine does not inhibit bacterial topoisomerases and may not mutate bacterial cells by the same mechanism as mammalian cells. It possesses readily oxidizable functions: The anilino ring of amsacrine can be reversibly oxidized, either chemically or microsomally, to produce a quinone diimine (Jurlina et al. DeMarini and Lawrence (1992) suggested that the induction of prophage reflects this activity of the drug. Nevertheless, none of the mutations seen with amsacrine is of the type usually associated with reactive oxygen species. In a single study in rats given amsacrine by intravenous administration, small-intestinal adenomas and adenocarci- nomas were induced in a dose-dependent fashion in males and females, and a few adenocarcinomas of the large intestine were seen in males and females at the high dose. The occurrence of intestinal carcinomas in rats of each sex and the occurrence of skin tumours after intravenous administration of a chemical are unusual. The drug is rapidly taken up by nucleated blood cells, with an overall cell:plasma ratio over 24 h of 8:1, and is distributed to other tissues. Preliminary studies suggest that the oral bioavailability of amsacrine is poor, and there is currently no oral formulation of the drug. About 35% of an intravenous dose was excreted renally over 72 h, with 12% as unchanged amsacrine; biliary recovery in two patients was up to 36%. In mice and rats, > 50% of a radiolabelled dose was excreted in the bile within 2 h, and 74% of the dose was recovered in the faeces of mice by 72 h. The results of studies in humans and animals demonstrate the importance of renal and hepatic function in amsacrine clearance. In animals, much of a radiolabelled dose of amsacrine was excreted as metabolites, some of which were cytotoxic. In human and animal species, the main toxic effect of amsacrine is myelosuppression, especially leukopenia. Other common toxic effects are nausea and vomiting, mucositis, alopecia and diarrhoea.
Unlike his German colleagues buy cheap dostinex 0.5 mg, Roux was under no pressure to maneuver through such a point of passage buy 0.5mg dostinex overnight delivery, primarily because in France value comparison was of less eminent importance: there it did not serve to control competing providers because the Pasteur Institute in Paris held a monopoly over serum-production. However, for the sake of comparability with the German sera, Roux made the effort to measure the serum using one of the accepted evaluation methods. He decided on the method published by Behring and Wernicke in 189 ,108 which he and Vaillard had already used in a modifed form for measuring tetanus serum. This meant that for Roux and his collaborators the living body and its ability to respond was an obligatory point of passage between the injection of the serum and the infection. On the other side of the Franco-Prussian border, Behring and his antitoxin hypothesis could basically rationalize away the vital variability of the guinea pigs. His ideal test animal was not regarded as an organism which reacted individually, but merely as a standardized indexing device. Roux and his collaborators varied the method by injecting pure toxin instead of diphtheria culture (Roux and Martin 1894, p. Analogously, Gradmann has pointed to the instrumentalization of animals as „cultural media“ in the experimental system of Robert Koch (Christoph Gradmann, „Das Maß der Krankheit - das pathologische Tierexperiment in der medizinischen Bakteriologie Robert 92 French and German Diphtheria Serum Research and the Reconfguration of Cultural Boundaries Conclusion The history of diphtheria serum research in Berlin and Paris tells us much about the differences between the two research cultures. In this article I have described the methods of chemical weakening versus biological attenuation of the diphtheria bacteria (or toxin) that comprised an important technical basis for immunization. I have also discussed the humoral versus cellular or phagocytic theories of immunity, and fnally the in vitro- versus „vital response” method of evaluating the serum. These differences were effected by the respective research traditions in Berlin and Paris, but they were also reconfgured in the interplay of the protagonists on both sides of the Franco-Prussian border in efforts to demarcate and profle their concepts and theories. These dynamic interrelations were at the same time also bridging the research activities of Roux/ Metschnikoff and Behring: Thus, I have shown how the researchers developed a considerable scientifc interest in each other and how both Roux and Behring drew on each other’s basic experimental techniques. Conceptualizing the relationship as dynamic interplay between the „two cultures of bacteriology“ in Paris and Berlin takes us away from the well-worn dichotomies of „national“ or „personal rivalry“ versus „cooperation“. Of course, the present article treats only a very short timeframe and cannot serve as a basis for generalizations about the history of Koch’s and Pasteur’s research schools as a whole. But this micro-study at least suggests that a shift in focus could lead to a subtler picture of the story than one based on the notion of essentially separate cultural worlds of science that only occasionally cooperate. Instead it shows the value of closely analyzing the multi-layered forms of interactions that not only demarcate research schools from one another, but also bind them together. Studien im Anschluß an Georges Canghuilhem, edited by Cornelius Borck, Volker Hess and Henning Schmidgen, 71-90. Jonathan Simon Abstract1 While it would be reassuring to believe that state regulation of drugs refects the best available response to any given public health problem, it is clearly wishful thinking. Indeed, much recent research points to the complex interactions and often intense negotiations that lie behind legislation in this feld, both in the past and today. In the present paper, I argue in the same sense, although in an arena where explicit debate was (apparently) limited. Retracing the history of serum regulation in France in 1895, I will present the context of suspicion and trust that framed a series of (largely silent) negotiations around the manner to ensure the safety of the French people while giving them access to what was seen as a valuable ‘scientifc’ treatment for a deadly disease. To analyse the emergence and functioning of the resulting serum regulation in France, I will make use of Herbert Simon’s concept of ‘satisfcing’, examining how the constraints and possibilities were ftted to one another over the course of parliamentary debates as well as the application of the offcial legislation. Thus, I will argue that while not ideal, this legislation was nonetheless satisfactory with respect to the immediate goals as conceived by the government and its partners, primarily the Pasteur Institute in Paris. In order to understand these developments, we need, therefore to examine all the constraints that entered into the discussion, such as the perception of the serum itself, its proposed use, the perception of diphtheria as a disease, the place of the local doctor in treatment, the status of bacteriology, etc. The heroic narrative of serotherapy I want to start my paper with a piece of French melodrama drawn from the experience of Paul Persy, a local doctor practicing in the Le Mans region of France at the end of the nineteenth century: On Saturday the nineteenth of January 1895, at around fve o’clock in the evening, a farmer from the Le Mans region introduced himself into my surgery, saying: ‘I have come, sir, in order to beg you to examine a child with a sore throat as soon as possible’ and, he added, now in tears ‘you see we are very worried; we lost one to croup four days ago, we only have this one left and “he is going the same way as the frst”: and we do believe it is the same illness’ ‘The child that you lost, was he treated by the new method, was he vaccinated? This modern miracle of medical science inspired the most sublime emotions in our hero’s breast, which he also valiantly struggled to put into words. Did I not think of my loved ones, all those who are dear to me and who might, one day, be affected by this cruel disease? Did I not think of the glory of France, my beautiful country, which I love and which I always want to see among the greatest of nations, for it is the blessed land of all devotions? This circular, dating from 14 January 1895, informed the Prefects of how to obtain the serum from the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Hence, at a moment when the Pasteur Institute was just beginning to produce suffcient serum to supply the whole of France, an emergency system was in place with the Prefect of each department distributing the still scarce medicine. This system by-passed the local pharmacies, which had hitherto constituted the standard channel for supplying medicaments to the French population. Indeed, the fact of leaving the pharmacist out of the circuit of distribution meant that the legal status of the serum under the legislation in force at the beginning of 1895 was unclear. If it was a medicament, then, according to legislation dating from 180 , only a qualifed pharmacist could supply it for medical use, which, as we have seen, was not the case. Nevertheless, as the serum represented a new therapeutic hope, widely acclaimed for its effectiveness in a deadly disease (particularly for young children), it is unsurprising that the Pasteur Institute was not pursued in court under the pharmaceutical legislation. Something else that is clear from the circular and the episode of the provincial doctor’s experience with 2 Paul Persy, Ma première application du sérum antidiphtérique.
Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to edrophonium discount dostinex 0.5mg mastercard, mechani- cal obstruction of intestinal or urinary tract cheap dostinex 0.5 mg fast delivery. Advice to patient • Use two forms of birth control including hormonal and barrier methods. Clinically important drug interactions • Drug that increases effects/toxicity of efavirenz: clarithromycin. Parameters to monitor: Signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reaction mainly in the form of rash. Editorial comments: In patients that have failed other antiretro- viral regimens, treatment with efavirenz should be initiated in conjunction with another agent that the patient has not previ- ously received. Nearly every large randomized clinical trial examining their use has been favorable. Treatment with this class of drug is the gold standard in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Susceptible organisms in vivo: Citrobacter sp, Enterobacter sp, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria gonor- rhoeae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (variable), Serratia, Marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus (less than ciprofloxacin), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hemolyticus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance > 30 mL/min: usual dose; cre- atinine clearance <30 mL/min: one half recommended dose q12h. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolone antibi- otics or quinolone antibiotics, eg, cinoxacin, nalidixic acid, acute liver disease. Mechanism of action: Relaxes smooth muscles of the bronchi- oles by stimulating β2 adrenergic receptors. Contraindications: Cardiac arrhythmias, heart block (from dig- italis intoxication), narrow-angle glaucoma, concomitant use of other sympathomimetics, hypersensitivity to ephedrine, thyro- toxicity, diabetes. Editorial comments • Ephedrine has very little utility as bronchodilator as newer, safer agents have been developed. Class of drug: Adrenergic amine, bronchodilator, pressor agent, antiglaucoma agent. Mechanism of action: As bronchodilator: Relaxes smooth mus- cles of the bronchioles by stimulating β2-adrenergic receptors. As pressor agent: stimulates heart, causes vasoconstriction by stimulating α adrenergic receptors. Contraindications: hypersensitivity to adrenergic compounds, tachycardia (idiopathic or from digitalis), cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac dilation, heart block (from digitalis intoxication), shock (except anaphylactic shock), narrow-angle glaucoma, organic brain damage, cerebral arteriosclerosis, intra-arterial adminis- tration. If given along with short-acting β agonist, advise patient to discontinue the latter and use it only along with salmeterol for relief of symptoms. Assess respiratory rate, sputum character (color, quan- tity), peak airway flow, O2 saturation and blood gases. If no relief is obtained from 3–5 aerosol inhalations within 6–12 hours, reevaluate effectiveness of treatment. In addition such patients, as well as those who have chronic disease, should be given a peak flow gauge and told to determine peak expiratory flow rate at least twice daily. For chronic con- ditions, the patient should be reassessed every 1–6 months fol- lowing control of symptoms. Mechanism of action: Inhibits platelet aggregation by binding fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor and other platelet surface receptors. Contraindications: History of abnormal bleeding within past 30 days, severe uncontrolled hypertension (systolic greater than 200 mm Hg or diastolic greater than 110 mm Hg), major surgery within past 6 weeks, history of stroke or hemorrhagic stroke, platelet count <100,000/mL3, creatinine >4. Editorial comments: • Eptifibatide is another platelet inhibitor used in conjunction with angioplasty. Contraindications: Pregnancy, ischemic heart disease, uncon- trolled hypertension, hemiplegic or basilar migraine, peripheral arterial disease, sepsis, recent vascular surgery, Raynaud’s disease, severe liver or kidney disease, ischemic bowel, hypersensitivity to ergot, high-dose aspirin therapy, known alcohol intolerance. Erythromycin Brand names: Erythromycin Base Filmtabs (erythromycin), Ilosone (erythromycin esolate), E. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to macrolide antibiotics, concomitant administration of pimozide. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that decrease effects/toxicity of macrolides: rifampin, aluminum or magnesium containing antacids. Parameters to monitor • Signs and symptoms of superinfection, in particular pseudomem- branous colitis. Editorial comments • Erythromycin is used in penicillin-allergic patients to treat streptococcal tonsillitis (resistance is increasing outside the United States. Mechanism of action: Competitive blocker of β-adrenergic receptors in heart and blood vessels. Lactation: As this drug is used only acutely, breastfeeding is unlikely to be relevant. Estrogen/Progestin Combination Oral Contrceptive Brand name: See table in Appendix. Warnings/precautions • Do not use preparations containing more than 50 µg estrogen unless medically indicated.
Your involvement in the consultative process is an integral part of the review and has undoubtedly contributed to the excellence of this edition cheap dostinex 0.5 mg with mastercard. Essential medicines are intended to be available within the context of functioning health systems at all times in adequate quantities effective dostinex 0.25mg, in the appropriate dosage forms, with assured quality and adequate information, and at a price the individual and the community can afford. It incorporates the need to regularly update medicines selections to: » reﬂect new therapeutic options and changing therapeutic needs; » the need to ensure medicine quality; and » the need for continued development of better medicines, medicines for emerging diseases, and medicines to meet changing resistance patterns. Effective health care requires a judicious balance between preventive and curative services. A crucial and often deﬁcient element in curative services is an adequate supply of appropriate medicines. In the health objectives of the National Drug Policy, the government of South Africa clearly outlines its commitment to ensuring availability and accessibility of medicines for all people. These are as follows: » To ensure the availability and accessibility of essential medicines to all citizens. Achieving these objectives requires a comprehensive strategy that not only includes improved supply and distribution, but also appropriate and extensive human resource development. The private sector is encouraged to use these guidelines and drug list wherever appropriate. Essential medicines are selected with due regard to disease prevalence, evidence on efﬁcacy and safety, and comparative cost. The implementation of the concept of essential medicines is intended to be ﬂexible and adaptable to many different situations. It remains a national responsibility to determine which medicines are regarded as essential. A medicine is included or removed from the list using an evidence based medicine review of safety and effectiveness followed by consideration of cost and other relevant practice factors. Simvastatin, These therapeutic classes have been designated where none of the members offer a significant benefit over the other registered members of the class. It is anticipated that by limiting the listing to a class there is increased competition and hence an improved chance of obtaining the best possible price in the tender process. In circumstances where you encounter such a class always consult the local formulary to identify the example that has been approved for use in your facility. The perspective adopted is that of a competent medical officer practicing in a public sector hospital. Conditions and medicines are cross referenced in two separate indexes of the book. This is followed by a brief description which may relevant clinical information such as diagnostic criteria, radiological and laboratory tests to assist the medical officer in arriving at a diagnosis. This is followed by medicine treatment which lists the approved medicines and provides fundamental prescribing information. The dosing regimens provide the recommended doses used in usual circumstances however the final dose should take into consideration capacity to eliminate the medicine, interactions and comorbid states. This edition of the Adult Hospital Level Standard Treatment Guidelines and Essential Medicines List provides additional information regarding Patient Adherence in Chronic Conditions, Measuring Medication Level and Prescription Writing. In the preface of the book guidance has been provided regarding dosing modification for reduced kidney function as well as therapeutic monitoring. Finally the guidelines make provision for referral of patients with more complex and uncommon conditions to facilities with the resources for further investigation and management. These systems should not only support the regulatory pharmacovigilance plan but should also provide pharmaco- epidemiology data that will be required to inform future essential medicines decisions as well as local interventions that may be required to improve safety. To facilitate reporting a copy of the form and guidance on its use has provided at the back of the book. Feedback Comments that aim to improve these treatment guidelines will be appreciated. The submission form and guidelines for completing the form are included in the book. Routine measurement is rarely warranted, but rather should be tailored to answering a specific clinical question, and is of most value in medicines with a narrow therapeutic index or where there is considerable individual variation in pharmacokinetics. Essential medicines for which there is evidence to support such monitoring include: Lithium Measure serum levels at about 12 hours after the last dose – e. Levels should be less than 1 mmol/L and should be checked regularly while on therapy, with more frequent monitoring in the elderly and frail. Aminoglycosides When dosed based on body weight, peak levels will usually be adequate, e. Trough levels taken immediately before the next dose may be valuable in identifying potential toxicity before it manifests as deafness or renal impairment. Anti-epileptics Levels may be helpful to confirm poor adherence or to confirm a clinical suspicion of toxicity. Routine measurement in patients with well controlled seizures and no clinical evidence of toxicity, is not appropriate. Individual levels may be difficult to interpret – if in doubt, seek assistance from a clinical pharmacokineticist.
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