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Hook-Barnard is a program officer with the Board on Life Sciences of the National Research Council discount 0.5mg cabgolin free shipping. She came to the National Academies from the National Institutes of Health where she was a Postdoctoral Research Fellow from 2003 to 2008 trusted cabgolin 0.5mg. Her graduate research examined translational regulation and ribosome binding in Escherichia coli. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease ͻͳ she contributes to projects in a variety of topic areas. Much of her current work is related to issues of molecular biology, microbiology, biosecurity and genomics. She was study director for the 2010 report Sequence-Based Classification of Select Agents: A Brighter Line, and continues to direct the U. How would a New Taxonomy of human disease enable more cost effective and rapid development of new, effective and safe drugs in the pharma/biotech setting? How would a New Taxonomy of human disease promote integration of clinical and research cultures in the pharma/biotech industry? How would a New Taxonomy of human disease promote public/private partnerships between industry and academia? What are key factors that would limit the implementation of a New Taxonomy of human disease in the pharma/biotech setting? Such studies involve testing hundreds of thousands of genetic variants called single nucleotide polymorphisms throughout the genome in people with and without a condition of interest. In addition, the consortium includes a focus on social and ethical issues such as privacy, confidentiality, and interactions with the broader community. Data Sharing Guiding Principles: All data sharing will adhere to 1) the terms of consent agreed to by research participants; 2) applicable laws and regulations, and; 3) the principle that individual sites within the network have final authority regarding whether their site’s data will be used or shared, on a per-project basis. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 100 administered by the National Institutes of Health. In addition each Member agrees to report in writing to the other Members any use or disclosure of any portion of the data of which it becomes aware that is not permitted by this Agreement including disclosures that are required by law. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 101 Appendix E: Glossary Biobank – A bank of biological specimens for biomedical research. Biomarker : a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. Because of its location, the gene is suspected of causing the disease or other phenotype. Clinical utility the ability of a screening or diagnostic test to prevent or ameliorate adverse health outcomes such as mortality, morbidity, or disability through the adoption of efficacious treatments conditioned on test results (Khoury 2003). The polymer that encodes genetic material and therefore the structures of proteins and many animal traits. EpigenomeThe epigenome consists of chemical compounds that modify, or mark, the genome in a way that tells it what to do, where to do it, and when to do it. Exposome characterization of both exogenous and endogenous exposures that can have differential effects at various stages during a person’s lifetime (Wild 2005; Rappaport 2011). Gel Electrophoresis: electrophoresis in which molecules (as proteins and nucleic acids) migrate through a gel and especially a polyacrylamide gel and separate into bands according to size (Merriam-Webster 2007). Genbank –The GenBank sequence database is an annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations (Mizrachi 2002). Gene-environment interactions an influence on the expression of a trait that results from the interplay between genes and the environment. Some traits are strongly influenced by genes, while other traits are strongly influenced by the environment. Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to direct the assembly of a protein molecule. Gene-expression profile Gene expression profiling is the measurement of the activity of thousands of genes at once, to create a global picture of cellular function. These profiles can, for example, distinguish between cells that are actively dividing, or show how the cells react to a particular treatment. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 103 mutation. Examples include the sickle cell trait, the Rh factor, and the blood groups (Mosby 2009). Genetic privacy the protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure (Kahn and Ninomiya 2010). This can either refer to known alleles (or types) of a single gene or to collections of genes. For example, some lung cancers have a mutant Egf receptor genotype while other lung cancers have a wild-type (or normal) Egf receptor genotype. Heterozygous refers to having inherited different forms of a particular gene from each parent.
Nanotechnology is the treatment of individual atoms generic cabgolin 0.5 mg online, molecules cheap 0.5mg cabgolin amex, or compounds into structures to produce materials and devices with special properties. Nanotechnology works on matter at dimensions in the nanometer scale length (1-100 nm), and thus can be used for a broad range of applications and the creation of various types of nano materials and nano devices. History of Nanotechnology Te development in the feld of nanotechnology started in 1958 and the various stages of development have been summarized in Table 1. Nano scale and Nanostructures Figure 2: Schematic diagram of various types of pharmaceutical nano systems. Te nano scale is the place where the properties of most common things are determined just above the scale of an atom. Nano scale objects have at least one dimension (height, length, depth) that measures *Corresponding author: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Y. Rafq Zakaria Campus, Rauza Bagh, Aurangabad- 431001, Maharashtra, India, Tel: +91 9823619992, E-mail: Te brief explanation of pharmaceutical nano system is as follows: annapratimanikalje@gmail. Feynman initiated thought process 1974 The term nanotechnology was used by Taniguchi for the frst time. Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology was awarded for modeling the molecular and electronic structures of new materials and for integrating single molecule 2003 biological motors with nano-scale silicon devices. First center for nano mechanical systems was established, Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology was 2004 warded for designing stable protein structures and for constructing a novel enzyme with an altered function. Liposomes: Tese have been extensively explored and most developed nano carriers for novel and targeted drug delivery due to their small size, these are 50-200 nm in size. It fnds application as long circulatory and in passive and active delivery of gene, protein and peptide. It contains three diferent regions: core moiety, branching units, and closely packed surface (Figure 5). Nano tubes have some special advantages over other drug delivery and diagnostic systems (Figure 3) due to their unique physical properties. Metallic nano particles: Metallic nano particles have used in drug delivery, especially in treatment of cancer and also in biosensors. Materials manufacturing will be revolutionized by further assembling into larger structures with designed properties. Nanotechnology can beneft chemical catalysis due to the extremely large surface to volume ratio. Te various applications of nanoparticles in catalysis range from fuel cell to catalytic converters and photocatalytic devices. Modern revolution in catalysis is due to the availability of unlimited commercial quantities of zeolites. Figure 5: Schematic representation of a dendrimers showing core, branches, Applications of Nanotechnology and surface. Te diferent felds that fnd potential applications of nanotechnology are as follows: circulatory, controlled delivery of bioactive material, targeted delivery of bioactive particles to macrophages and liver targeted delivery. Transportation Nano materials can be classifed dimension wise into following categories: d. Nanotechnology in health and medicine • Tubes, fbers, platelets have dimensions less than 100 nm. Even today various disease like diabetes, cancer, Parkinson’s • Particles, quantum dots, hollow spheres have 0 or 3 Dimensions disease, Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular diseases and multiple < 100 nm. Nano- phases can be classifed as, medicine is an application of nanotechnology which works in the feld of health and medicine. Nano-medicine makes use of nano materials, • Te nano material is called single phase solids. In the future, nano medicine will amorphous particles and layers are included in this class. Te medical area of nano science • Matrix composites, coated particles are included in multi-phase application has many projected benefts and is potentially valuable for solids. Certain nano scale particles are used as tags and labels, Manufacturing Approaches biological can be performed quickly, the testing has become more Te two major approaches  to get nano materials are -one is the sensitive and more fexible. Gene sequencing has become more efcient bottom up and the other is top down approach. Enormous amount of information With the help of nanotechnology, damaged tissue can be reproduced could be stored in devices build from the bottom up. Advanced biosensors with novel features can be developed with the help of Carbon nano tubes. Tese biosensors can be used for Top manufacturing involves the construction of parts through astrobiology and can throw light on study origins of life. Tis technology methods such as cutting, carving and molding and due to our is also being used to develop sensors for cancer diagnostics. Medical use of Nano Materials Nano medicine is a relatively new feld of science and technology. By interacting with biological molecules at nano scale, nanotechnology broadens the feld of research and application. Interactions of nano devices with bio molecules can be understood both in the extracellular medium and inside the human cells.
The ability to distinguish chest pain caused by an acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction) from other cardiac buy 0.5 mg cabgolin otc, gastrointestinal cabgolin 0.5 mg without a prescription, pulmonary, musculoskeletal or psychogenic etiologies is an important training problem for third-year medical students. Symptoms and signs of chest pain that may be due to an acute coronary syndrome such as unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Symptoms and signs of chest pain due to other cardiac causes such as: • Atypical or variant angina (coronary vasospasm, Prinzmetal angina). Symptoms and signs of chest pain due to musculoskeletal causes such as: • Costochondritis. Symptoms and signs of chest pain due to psychogenic causes such as: • Panic disorders. Factors that may be responsible for provoking or exacerbating symptoms of ischemic chest pain by: • Increasing myocardial oxygen demand. Physiologic basis and/or scientific evidence supporting each type of treatment, intervention or procedure commonly used in the management of patients who present with chest pain. Role of a critical pathway or practice guideline in delivering high quality, cost- effective care for patients presenting with symptoms of chest pain in the outpatient clinic, emergency room or hospital. History-taking skills: Students should be able to obtain, document, and present an appropriately complete medical history that differentiates among the common etiologies of chest pain. Physical exam skills: Students should be able to perform a focused physical exam that includes the following elements: • Accurate measurement of arterial blood pressure and recognition of the typical blood pressure findings that occur in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic insufficiency, and pulsus paradoxus. When a heart murmur is present, students should be able to: o Identify timing (systolic vs. Laboratory interpretation: Students should be able to recommend when to order diagnostic and laboratory tests and be able to interpret them, both prior to and after initiating treatment based on the differential diagnosis, including consideration of test cost and performance characteristics as well as patient preferences. Test interpretation should take into account: • Important differential diagnostic considerations including the “must not miss” diagnoses. Communication skills: Students should be able to: • Communicate the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment plan to patients and their families. Management skills: Students should be able to develop an appropriate evaluation and treatment plan for patients that includes: • Identification of the indications, contraindications, mechanisms of action, adverse reactions, significant interactions, and relative costs of the following medications: o Anti-platelet agents (aspirin, clopidogrel). Understand the emotional impact of a diagnosis of coronary artery disease and its potential effect on lifestyle (work performance, sexual functioning, etc). Recognize the importance of early detection and modification of risk factors that may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Demonstrate commitment to using risk-benefit, cost-benefit, and evidence- based considerations in the selection of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for chest pain. Recognize the importance and demonstrate a commitment to the utilization of other healthcare professions in the treatment of chest pain. There are several common etiologies for cough of which a third year medical student should be aware, as well as more clinically concerning etiologies. A proper understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of cough is an important learning objective. Symptoms, signs, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and typical clinical course of the most common causes cough: • Acute cough: o Viral tracheitis. History-taking skills: Students should be able to obtain, document, and present an age-appropriate medical history that differentiates among the etiologies of disease, including: • Onset. Physical exam skills: Students should be able to perform a physical exam to establish the diagnosis and severity of disease, including: • Accurately determining respiratory rate and level of respiratory distress. Differential diagnosis: Students should be able to generate a prioritorized differential diagnosis recognizing history, physical exam, and laboratory findings that suggest a specific etiology of cough. Laboratory interpretations: Students should be able to recommend when to order diagnostic and laboratory tests and be able to interpret them, both prior to and after initiating treatment based on the differential diagnosis, including consideration of test cost and performance characteristics as well as patient preferences. Laboratory and diagnostic tests should include, when appropriate: • Chest radiograph. Communication skills: Students should be able to: • Counsel and educate patients about environmental contributors to their disease, pneumococcal and influenza immunizations, and smoking cessation. Management skills: Students should be able to develop an appropriate evaluation and treatment plan for patients that includes: • Describing the indications, contraindications, mechanisms of action, adverse reactions, significant interactions, and relative costs of the various treatments, interventions, or procedures commonly used to diagnose and treat patients who present with symptoms of cough. Demonstrate commitment to using risk-benefit, cost-benefit, and evidence- based considerations in the selection of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for cough. Respond appropriately to patients who are non-adherent to treatment for cough and smoking cessation. Demonstrate ongoing commitment to self-directed learning regarding diagnosis and management of cough. Appreciate the impact that an acute or chronic cough has on a patient’s quality of life, well-being, ability to work, and the family.
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